31 No. 5
A Critical Evaluation of the Viscosity and Density of Molten Copper and Tin
There is an increasing use of mathematical models to simulate a variety of processes involving liquid metals such as ‘‘cast to shape,’’ primary and secondary metal production, powder production by spray forming, and welding. Depending on what aspect of the process is modeled, there is a need for viscosity data for the relevant metals or their alloys.
Historically, there are wide discrepancies in the viscosity data reported for the metallic elements and for alloys1 and in general reported values for viscosity can be up to an order of magnitude apart. Hence, only an internationally accepted committee can collect and critically evaluate such data.
In a previous IUPAC project standard reference correlations for the viscosity and density of aluminium and iron were proposed.2 The proposed standard reference correlations for the density of aluminium and iron are characterized by 0.65% and 0.77% percentage standard deviation, while the standard reference correlations for the viscosity are characterized by 13.7% and 5.7% percentage standard deviation, at the 95% confidence level, respectively.
The viscosity and density of aluminium covered a temperature range 930–1270 K and iron 1800–2100 K. The proposed study of copper and tin will cover the temperature ranges 1350–1700 K and 500–1050 K, respectively, and thus will provide a complete temperature range for the viscosity and density from 500–2100 K for industrial application.
- Iida, T., and Guthrie, R.I.L., The Physical Properties of Liquid Metals, Clarendon, Oxford, 1988.
- Assael M.J., Kakosimos K., Bannish M., Brillo J., Egry I., Brooks R., Quested P.N., Mills K.C., Nagashima A., Sato Y., and Wakeham W.A., “Reference Data for the Density and Viscosity of Liquid Aluminum and Liquid Iron,” Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 35:285–300 (2006) or see IUPAC project 2003-005-1-100.
For more information and comments, contact Task Group Chair Marc J. Assael <[email protected]> or William A. Wakeham
last modified 14 September 2009.
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