33 No. 6
|Making an imPACt
||Recent IUPAC technical reports and recommendations that affect the many fields of pure and applied chemistry.
See also www.iupac.org/publications/pac
For any photoluminescent species, the quantum yield (QY) of its luminescence is a basic property, and its measurement is an important step in the characterization of the species. According to the definition of the QY, only two quantities need to be known, viz. the number of photons absorbed and the number of photons emitted per unit of time. Unfortunately, reliable measurements of these quantities can be hard to obtain. In this paper, the use of standards for the measurement of photoluminescence QYs in dilute solutions is reviewed. Only three standards can be considered well established. Another group of six standards has been investigated by several independent researchers. A large group of standards is frequently used in recent literature, but the validity of these is less certain. The needs for future development comprise: (i) confirmation of the validity of the QY values of many commonly used standard materials, preferably in the form of SI traceable standards; (ii) extension of the set of standard materials to the UV and near-IR spectral ranges; and (iii) good standards or robust protocols for the measurements of low QYs.
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